WE,C CS P ⟨⟩ the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect uC CS ⟨U⟩nion, establish jC CS ⟨J⟩ustice, insure domestic tC CS ⟨T⟩ranquility, provide for the common dC CS ⟨D⟩efence, promote the general wC CS ⟨W⟩elfare, and secure the bC CS ⟨B⟩lessings of lC CS ⟨L⟩iberty to ourselves and our pC CS ⟨P⟩osterity, do ordain and establish this ConstitutionC CS ⟨Constitution for the United States of America.


Sect. I. ALL legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

No person shall be a rCS ⟨R⟩epresentative who shall not have attained to the age of twentyP ⟨ ⟩five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threeP ⟨ ⟩fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United SC ⟨s⟩tates, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty CS ⟨-⟩thousand, but each state shall have at least one rCS ⟨R⟩epresentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of NewP ⟨ ⟩Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, NewP ⟨ ⟩Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, NorthP ⟨ ⟩Carolina five, SouthP ⟨ ⟩Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the ECS ⟨e⟩xecutive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sect. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two sCS ⟨S⟩enators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each sCS ⟨S⟩enator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the sCS ⟨S⟩enators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that oneP ⟨ ⟩third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the LC CS ⟨l⟩egislature of any state, the ECS ⟨e⟩xecutive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the LC CS ⟨l⟩egislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a sCS ⟨S⟩enator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall notCS ⟨ ⟩when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

The ViceP ⟨ ⟩President of the United States shall be President of the sCS ⟨S⟩enate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other officers, and also a President pro temporeC CS ⟨pro tempore⟩ (italic), in the absence of the ViceP ⟨ ⟩President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States;P ⟨:⟩ but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

Sect. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for sCS ⟨S⟩enators and rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof;C CS ⟨:⟩ bCS ⟨B⟩ut the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Sect. 5. Each hCS ⟨H⟩ouse shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorisP ⟨z⟩ed to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each hCS ⟨H⟩ouse may provide.

Each hCS ⟨H⟩ouse may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour,C ⟨.,⟩ and, with the concurrence of twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds, expel a member.

Each hCS ⟨H⟩ouse shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either hCS ⟨H⟩ouse on any question CS ⟨, ⟩shall, at the desire of oneP ⟨ ⟩fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither hCS ⟨H⟩ouse, during the session of Congress, shall,C CS ⟨⟩ without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two hCS ⟨H⟩ouses shall be sitting.

Sect. 6. The sCS ⟨S⟩enators and rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective hCS ⟨H⟩ouses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either hCS ⟨H⟩ouse, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No sCS ⟨S⟩enator or rCS ⟨R⟩epresentative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States,P ⟨⟩ which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either hCS ⟨H⟩ouse during his continuance in office.

Sect. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the hCS ⟨H⟩ouse of rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives; but the sCS ⟨S⟩enate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the hCS ⟨H⟩ouse of rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives and the sCS ⟨S⟩enate,C ⟨⟩ shall, before it become a law, be presented to the pCS ⟨P⟩resident of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that hCS ⟨H⟩ouse in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other hCS ⟨H⟩ouse, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by twoCS P ⟨ ⟩thirds of that hCS ⟨H⟩ouse, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both hCS ⟨H⟩ouses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each hCS ⟨H⟩ouse respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolutionCS ⟨ ⟩or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, orCS P ⟨ ⟩being disapproved by him, shall be repassedC CS ⟨re-passed⟩ by twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Sect. 8. The Congress shall have power

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;C CS ⟨:⟩

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;C CS ⟨:⟩

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;C CS ⟨:⟩

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;C CS ⟨:⟩

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;C CS ⟨:⟩

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;C CS ⟨:⟩

To establish post C CS ⟨-⟩offices and post C CS ⟨-⟩roads;C CS ⟨:⟩

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;C CS ⟨:⟩

To constitute tribunals inferior to the sCS ⟨S⟩upreme cCS ⟨C⟩ourt;C CS ⟨:⟩

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations;C CS ⟨:⟩

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;C CS ⟨:⟩

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;C CS ⟨:⟩

To provide and maintain a navy;C CS ⟨:⟩

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;C CS ⟨:⟩

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;C CS ⟨:⟩

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining,C CS ⟨⟩ the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;C CS ⟨:⟩

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as mayCS ⟨ ⟩by cession of particular SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings;—C ⟨:——⟩, CS ⟨:—⟩, P ⟨;— ⟩And

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Sect. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpusC CS ⟨habeas corpus⟩ (italic) shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post factoC CS ⟨ex post facto⟩ (italic) law shall be passed.

No capitation, or other directCS ⟨ ⟩tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the censusC CS ⟨census⟩ (italic) or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another:C CS ⟨;⟩ nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States:—C CS P ⟨: ⟩And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or titleCS ⟨ ⟩of any kind whatever, from any king, prince,C CS ⟨⟩ or foreign state.

Sect. I0. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post factoC CS ⟨ex post facto⟩ (italic) law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing itsP ⟨it’s⟩ inspection laws;P ⟨:⟩ and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the TCS ⟨t⟩reasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and controul of the Congress.C ⟨,⟩ No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


Sect. I. The executive power shall be vested in a pC CS ⟨P⟩resident of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, andCS ⟨ ⟩together with the vice-presidentC CS ⟨Vice-President⟩, P ⟨Vice President⟩, chosen for the same term, be elected P ⟨ ,⟩as follows.C ⟨:——⟩, CS ⟨:⟩, P ⟨⟩

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of sCS ⟨S⟩enators and rCS ⟨R⟩epresentatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress: but no sCS ⟨S⟩enator or rCS ⟨R⟩epresentative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit CS ⟨ ,⟩sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate. The pCS ⟨P⟩resident of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate shall, in the presence of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate and hC CS ⟨H⟩ouse of rC CS ⟨R⟩epresentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the hC CS ⟨H⟩ouse of rC CS ⟨R⟩epresentatives shall immediately chuse by ballot one of them for pC CS ⟨P⟩resident; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said hC CS ⟨H⟩ouse shall in like manner chuse the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident. But in chusing the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president.C CS ⟨Vice-President.⟩, P ⟨Vice President.⟩ But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate shall chuse from them by ballot the vice-presidentC CS ⟨Vice-President⟩, P ⟨Vice President⟩.

The Congress may determine the time of chusing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of pC CS ⟨P⟩resident; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirtyP ⟨ ⟩five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.CS ⟨⟩

In case of the removal of the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-presidentC CS ⟨Vice-President⟩, P ⟨Vice President⟩, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation C CS ⟨, ⟩or inability, both of the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident and vice-presidentC CS ⟨Vice-President⟩, P ⟨Vice President⟩, declaring what officer shall then act as pC CS ⟨P⟩resident, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a pC CS ⟨P⟩resident shall be elected.

The pC CS ⟨P⟩resident shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.C ⟨,⟩

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:C ⟨:——⟩, P ⟨:—⟩

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I wiliC CS P ⟨l⟩ faithfully execute the office of pC CS ⟨P⟩resident of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States.”

Sect. 2. The pC CS ⟨P⟩resident shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate, to make treaties, provided twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law.P ⟨:⟩ But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper,C ⟨⟩ in the pC CS ⟨P⟩resident alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The pC CS ⟨P⟩resident shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the sC ⟨S⟩enate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next sC CS ⟨S⟩ession.

Sect. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may,CS ⟨⟩ on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

Sect. 4. The pCS ⟨P⟩resident, vCS ⟨V⟩iceP ⟨ ⟩pCS ⟨P⟩resident and all civil officers ofC ⟨of of⟩ the United States,C CS ⟨⟩ shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


Sect. I. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one sCS ⟨S⟩upreme cCS ⟨C⟩ourt, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the sCS ⟨S⟩upreme and iCS ⟨I⟩nferior cCS ⟨C⟩ourtsC CS ⟨⟩, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sect. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;P ⟨;—⟩ to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers CS ⟨, ⟩and consuls;P ⟨;—⟩ to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;P ⟨;—⟩ to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;P ⟨;—⟩ to controversies between two or more SC CS ⟨s⟩tatesP ⟨;–⟩between a state and citizens of another state,P ⟨;—⟩ between citizens of different SC CS ⟨s⟩tates,P ⟨,—⟩ between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be partyCS ⟨a party⟩, the sCS ⟨S⟩upreme cCS ⟨C⟩ourt shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the sCS ⟨S⟩upreme cCS ⟨C⟩ourt shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Sect. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture C CS ⟨, ⟩except during the life of the person attainted.


Sect. I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records,C CS ⟨⟩ and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Sect. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall,P ⟨⟩ on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.

Sect. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this CC CS ⟨c⟩onstitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

Sect. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this uCS ⟨U⟩nion a RCS ⟨r⟩epublican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature CS ⟨, ⟩cannot be convened) against domestic violence.


The Congress, whenever twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of both hC CS ⟨H⟩ouses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of twoP ⟨ ⟩thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of threeP ⟨ ⟩fourths of the several states, or by cCS ⟨C⟩onventions in threeP ⟨ ⟩fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress;C CS ⟨:⟩ Provided,P ⟨⟩ that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand sevenC CS P ⟨eight⟩ hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of itsP ⟨it’s⟩ equal suffrage in the sC CS ⟨S⟩enate.


All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this CC CS ⟨c⟩onstitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this CC CS ⟨c⟩onstitution, as under the confederation.

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

The senators and representatives beforementionedC CS P ⟨before mentioned⟩, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


The ratification of the conventions of nine SC CS ⟨s⟩tates, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the SC CS ⟨s⟩tates so ratifying the same.

DoneC CS ⟨DONE⟩ in Convention,P ⟨⟩ by the unanimous consent of the States present,P ⟨⟩ the seventeenth day of September,P ⟨⟩ in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eightyP ⟨ ⟩seven,P ⟨⟩ and of the IndependeP ⟨a⟩nce of the United States of America the twelfth.P ⟨⟩ In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our Names.P ⟨,⟩